FREE GAT Analytical Reasoning Practice

**Question 1–4 based on information below:**

As part of their sports physical, seven college athletes – F, G, H, I, J, K and L – are being weighed. In announcing the results of the physical exams, the coach has given the following information.

None of the athletes is exactly the same weight as another athlete.

K is heavier than L, but lighter than H.

I is heavier than J

Both F and G are heavier than H.

1. Each of the following could be true EXCEPT?

A. F is the heaviest.

B. G is the heaviest.

C. I is the heaviest.

D. More than three athletes are heavier than K.

E. More than three athletes are lighter than K.

2. Which of the following, if true, would be sufficient to determine which athlete is the lightest?

A. I is the heaviest

B. I is lighter than K

C. K is heavier than J

D. J is heavier than K

E. Exactly five students are lighter than F.

3. If J is heavier than F, how many different rankings by weight, of the athletes are possible?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

E. 5

4. If H is heavier than I, which of the following CANNOT be true?

A. I’s weight is equal to the average of F’s weight and G’s weight.

B. I’s weight is equal to the average of K’s weight and L’s weight

C. J’s weight is equal to the average of K’s weight and L’s weight

D. J is the second lightest.

Plz, attempt by your own before going down for answer explanations.

**Answers Explanation:**

As advised earlier, always sort down each condition in your own code or short-cuts so you just see your code rather than looking at the information and conditions again. This process saves couple of time and helps sort out the question efficiently. Remember that there’s no hard and fast rule in making such codes, and you are free to make any code which you think suitable and can remember throughout answer the whole group (i.e. all 4 questions). So, let’s make short codes for each condition.

According to the given information seven college athletes (i.e. F, G, H, I, J, K and L) are weighted as per below conditions:

First condition: The code for this condition is not required, we must remember that everybody have different heights.

Second condition: K > L; but H > K (in short) → H > K > L (We assumed *a* > *b* means *a* is heavier than *b*)

Third condition: I > J

Also, I > J gives information only about I and J, but it doesn’t provide information whether I is the heaviest and J is lowest by weight of all 7 athletes?

Finally, F > H and G > H gives two possibilities: F > G > H or G > F > H. It doesn’t tell whether F > G or G > F, so the two possibilities are there.

**Sketch:**

According to the second condition: H … K … L

According to third condition: I … J

According to the fourth condition: Either F … G … H or G … F … H

H … K means H and K are not necessarily adjacent to each other by weight, i.e. other person/persons may have weight between H and K.

**Mental Analysis:**

After analyzing second and third condition, we must think in mind that I can be heaviest, can weight between H and K, can weight between K and L, or can weight less than L as follows:

When I is heaviest among H, I, J, K and L following possible arrange by weight are there for five people:

I … J … H … K … L | I …. H …. J .… K .… L | I …. H …. K .… J .… L | I …. H …. K .… L .… J

When I will come between H and K:

H … I … J … K … L | H … I … K … J … L | H … I … K … L … J

When I will come between K and L:

H … K … I … J … L | H … K … I … L … J

When I is less than L:

H … K … L … I … J

Similarly, involvement of fourth condition make things more complex, but you should know that F can be heaviest, or G can be heaviest, but H cannot be the heaviest because both F and G are heavier than H. Also, we cannot say whether F and G heavier than I or I is heavier than F and G. We have completely analyzed the group information and conditions, so let’s start solving questions one by one.

**Answer Q1:** According to our analysis, F can be heaviest, G can also be heaviest and I can also be the heaviest of all 7 athletes. Thus, choice A, B and C can be true. Also, clearly more than 3 athletes can be heavier than K, because F, G, and H, are heavier than K; while I and J can be heavier than K. So, choice D can also be true. So we are left with only choice E, which must be correct answer. The reason is that maximum 3 people (i.e.: L, I and J) be less than K. As, no more than 3 persons have weights less than K, so **choice E is correct answer**.

**Answer Q2:** Let’s analyze for each choice one by one. Choice A states I is the heaviest. But according to this information, the least weight person can be L or J. So, we cannot say which one must be lightest. Choice B states I is lighter than K, again this information doesn’t clear whether L is lightest or J. In fact, we are looking for the choice which clearly specify that J cannot be less by weight than L, or L cannot be less by weight than J. If you just analyze other choices, only choice D will provide information and limits J to heavier than K. This means, J must be heavier than L, and thus, L must be lightest. Thus, **choice D is correct**.

**Answer Q3:** Such questions that ask about possible number of ways are harder one and require bit more time than other questions. So, we advise to attempt this at end of the group information questions. In other words, we advise to attempt Q4 first and then back to Q3 to answer. But let’s explain Q3 here:

If J is heavier than F, following possibilities are there:

I … J … F … G … H … K … L

I … J … G … F … H … K … L

I … G … J … F … H … K … L

G … I … J … F … H … K … L

Note that there’s no restriction about G, except G > H. So, there are 4 possibilities. Also, note that all the four conditions given in the question have been fulfilled. Thus, **choice D is correct**.

**Answer Q4:** Before solving question 4, you should forget information of question 3 (i.e. J is heavier than F). Start from your original sketch, and solve for the next question 4:

Given that H > I, so following possible arrange are there for H, I, J, K and L:

When I will come between H and K:

H … I … J … K … L | H … I … K … J … L | H … I … K … L … J

When I will come between K and L:

H … K … I … J … L | H … K … I … L … J

When I is less than L:

H … K … L … I … J

F and G will always come before H, and there are two ways for F, G and H: F … G … H or G … F … H

According to choice A, weight of I is average of F and G, which means I comes between F and G. Impossible! Because I is lighter than H, so it must also be lighter than both F and G. Thus, choice A cannot be true and, hence, **choice A is correct answer**. We don’t need to check other choices, as we are damn sure **choice A is correct**.

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